Adani Mundra

Project full name

Grid connected engergy efficient power generation

CDM Project number

2716

Description

Adani Mundra was the first super-critical Thermal Power Plant in the world to register with the UNFCCC as a CDM project and first coal power project to receive carbon credits. In this project activity Adani Power Limited (APL) implements the high efficiency power generation using coal-fired super-critical technology at Mundra, Gujarat which shall result in reduced consumption of fossil fuel and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for thermal power generation. APL is a subsidiary company of Adani Enterprises Limited (AEL). The power division of AEL is a well -known name in power trading activities in India. The project activity has an installed capacity of 1320 MW (2 x 660 MW). The proposed project activity envisages generation of steam at super-critical conditions, generating power by the use of condensing type steam turbines. The project activity shall result in higher generation efficiency of about 40% as compared to sub-critical coal fired power plants presently operating in India which have average generation efficiency of around 30.05%.

Report summary

Key promises made by project proponents:

  • the super-critical technology based power plant would help in the improvement of environmental conditions in and around the locality of the project site
  • the proposed project activity would reduce the requirement of coal combustion and thus avoid emissions of CO₂ and other air pollutants (SPM, SOx) in the atmosphere due to higher efficiency of power generation
  • the proposed project activity will be beneficial to the local rural community by providing substantial employment opportunities and reinforcing of social infrastructure in the region

Situation on the ground:

The Adani Mundra project is the first coal power project registered under the CDM to receive carbon credits (CERs). Due to the depletion of groundwater and the destruction of mangroves as a result of the constructions for the project, the availability and accessibility of fish is negatively influenced, constituting a threat to the livelihood of the local population.
Despite questionable additionality of the Adani Mundra project and the fact that coal power projects in general inflict toxic burdens on local populations and ecosystems, this project is in violation with various national regulations, as highlighted in the inspection committee report of the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) released in April 2013. For example, the report states that even though the company claimed it had adequate pollution control equipment in place, their operation is an aspect that cannot be verified/commented upon by the Committee because of missing monitoring reports. This does not comply with the directive for controlling fugitive emissions which was adopted by the Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) in 2011.

A report by the GPCB based on a field visit states: “It is clear that the company has been less than serious about reporting on compliance with the conditions set at the time of clearance. In many cases non-compliance with reporting conditions has been observed.”
The full operational CGPL is invading houses all around the plant with coal dust. Coal dust has impacts on all aspects of life, including food, drinking water or even their houses. It was indicated in the Project Design Document (PDD) that the project activity would reduce the requirement of coal combustion and thus avoid emissions of CO₂ and other air pollutants (SPM, SOx) in the atmosphere due to higher efficiency of power generation. However, the question of adverse health impacts due to both huge amounts of coal dust from CGPL and fly-ash from CGPL (& the adjacent 4600 MW Adani power), is a critical one, as these two together are bringing in and burning nearly 28 million tons of coal every year in that small area. The health of local people is negatively impacted to an extent that lung problems and skin irritations occur.

Coal power Coal power

Project participants

  • India:
  •  Adani Power Ltd
  • France:
  •  EDF Trading Ltd (officially withdrawn, but still listed as buyer at UNFCCC website)

Registration date

16 December 2009

Carbon credits issued to date

1.020.489

Exact location

Tunda and Siracha, Mundra Taluka
Kutch district
Gujarat
India

Relevant links at UNFCCC website

PDD
host country letter of approval
validation report

Sustainable development benefits

social well-being

sustainable development benefits according to claims made by project developers:

  • the proposed project activity will be beneficial to the local rural community by providing substantial employment opportunities and reinforcing of social infrastructure in the region
  • the project activity will contribute to improvement of the power deficit situation, which will improve quality of life and facilitate accelerated implementation of rural electrification initiatives in India

sustainable development benefits according to reports:

Jobs 

  • only very few locals are employed by the company
  • income generation:
  • fly ash emanated from the project falls on the fish put out for drying, making it inedible and non-marketable
  • due to intense pollution and coal dust emitted from the project, production of horticulture has gone down severely

Health and safety

  • disease prevention:
  • fish gets contaminated with the toxic fly ash falling on it, making it highly unsafe to consume, particularly for women of child bearing age
  • recent study – Coal Kills – estimate about 100-120 people are killed every year within this region only because of the impact of the thermal power projects in this area
  • there is a roughly 20% increase in children’s respiratory diseases in the past years, since the CGPL is functioning

Welfare

  • community upliftment:
  • deep changes in the landscape, from mouth creek to mangrove or disappearance of grazing land, have greatly impoverished the local population
  • the loss/destruction of mangroves and creeks resulted in drastic reduction in fish availability in the region, pushing the fishing communities to extreme social and economic difficulties
  • access routes to fishing and grazing grounds have either been blocked or unusually lengthened by the Tata’s water channels
  • large areas of inter-tidal zones, used as commons both by the fishworkers and pastoralists, were made inaccessible by gated boundary walls – resulting in high distress for both communities
  • the lives and livelihoods of nearly 10,000 fishworkers and about 4000 pastoralists are threatened as a result of this
  • as a result of migrant labourers indulging in alcohol consumption, the local men folk are now being impacted directly, getting hooked onto this, and domestic violence has increased sharply in this area

economic well-being

sustainable development benefits according to claims made by project developers:

  • the 1320MW super-critical power plant will result in huge amount of investment in power generation and other associated infrastructure which will contribute to the economic growth of the region
  • the proposed project activity will also result in increased availability of coal, which is a depleting non renewable resource
  • the proposed project activity will reduce the demand-supply gap of electricity in India and local industrial growth will be accelerated due to increased availability of power in the region
  • the proposed project activity will generate significant amount of employment for the local populace for the purposes of construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance of this power project
  • the technical consultants and equipment suppliers would also be benefited economically because of the proposed project activity

environmental well-being

sustainable development benefits according to claims made by project developers

  • the super-critical technology based power plant would help in the improvement of environmental
    conditions in and around the locality of the project site
  • the proposed project activity would reduce the requirement of coal combustion and thus avoid emissions of CO₂ and other air pollutants (SPM, SOx) in the atmosphere due to higher efficiency of power generation

sustainable development benefits according to reports:

Air

  • reduction SOx, NOx:
  • the coal plant emit large amounts of air pollutants including: sulfur dioxide, which contributes to acid rain; nitrous oxide, a precursor to ozone that harms human health and also contributes to global warming; and other toxic air pollutants including mercury and fly ash
  • reduction fly ash:
  • in the PDD, the project proponents proposed to provide a proper ash utilisation plan
  • an inspection on 18 April 2011 by the Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) revealed that about 27,127 MT of fly ash were found to be disposed in low-lying areas between APL and West port
  • as per the Environmental Clearance condition for phase III of the project, no disposal of fly ashis allowed in low-lying areas
  • disposal of fly ash in the low-lying areas was done with open dumpers, causing fugitive emissions; this has been observed during the GPCB visit

Water

  • accessibility of water:
  • ground water table has depleted rapidly due to the construction of the project site
  • in an area with little rain, the gigantic construction projects, along with port & other factories, have withdrawn massive amounts of water from the precious aquifers, depleting them extensively
  • creeks are showing signs of damage, because of soil deposition blocking access of seawater into the area
  • creek branches in the proposed North port site have completely disappeared over the years
  • laying down of a pipeline in the inter-tidal zone obstructing creek systems and natural flow of seawater
  • water management:
  • increase of salinity in ground water

Natural resources 

  • protection plant life:
  • mangroves had been cut for laying pipelines and construction of roads
  • the company has built many bunds in the inter-tidal area and blocked many creeks feeding water to the mangrove patches
  • large scale destruction of mangroves especially at the north port site

technological well-being

sustainable development benefits according to claims made by project developers:

  • the super-critical technology employed is one of the first-of-its-kind in the thermal power generation
    sector of India
  • the project activity will promote capacity building and development of new skills and knowledge base in the industry
  • the technology to be adopted for the project activity has wide replication potential in various upcoming thermal power plants of India
  • innovation of technology being crucial for industrial development, the proposed project activity will demonstrate an excellent example of technology transfer in thermal power generation sector of India which will translate into further investment and initiatives in terms of technology development and deployment

Local stakeholder engagement

local stakeholder consultation according to information given in the PDD:

  • the stakeholders identified for the project are: employees of APL, local populace, Ministry of Environment & Forests, India, consultants, equipment suppliers, government and non-government parties which are involved in the project at various stages
  • stakeholders were invited for a meeting
  • a presentation was given by APL discussing the various aspects of the project activity
  • The local stakeholders were invited for a presentation between 3.10.2007 and 21.10.2007, which was conducted as a part of the Environment & Social Impact Assessment (this environmental and social impact assessment report has formed the basis for issuance of Environmental clearance certificate and the Consent to Establish for the project activity by the Ministry of Environment and Forest of India)
  • Stakeholders’ comments were also invited for the project activity particularly for feedback on the environment friendly nature of the proposed project activity. The stakeholders have appreciated the initiative taken by Adani Power Ltd.

local stakeholder consultation according to reports:

The Project Design Document (PDD) was conducted on the basis of an erroneous social and environmental impact assessment that failed to recognize fishing communities, salt-pan workers and pastoralists as potentially affected stakeholders. Fishing communities, who are the single largest segment that is severely affected by the project, have not been consulted before the implementation of the project. Neither has relevant information been made accessible in the local languages, nor have they been informed about   the possible impacts of the project.

Sources and Materials

Sources

  • Glimpse from Ground: Analysis of selected CDM projects by Gujarat Forum on CDM

Organisations working on project

  • Gujarat Forum on CDM
  • Paryavaran Mitra

Last update

03.12.2014


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